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病理解剖学教研室
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病理学留学生英语教学培养方案
2015-11-17 09:37   审核人:

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this course is to understand the contents and task of pathology, and the status of pathology in medical science. Learn the guiding ideology and methodology of pathology. Know the research method and development of pathology.

Chapter 1 CELLULAR INJURY AND ADAPTATION

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the concepts related to cellular injury and adaptation.

2. Grasp the etiology, the basic pathological process, the pathological changes and the mechanism of cellular injury.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the morphological changes of adaptation and cellular injury.

2. Grasp the etiology, basic pathological process, the morphological changes and the mechanism of cellular injury.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The type, relative concepts and pathological significance of adaptation, the type of atrophy

2. The etiology and the mechanism of cellular injury

3. The concept and type of degeneration, the concept, the morphological changes and pathological significance of cellular swelling, fatty degeneration, hyaline degeneration, amyloid degeneration, pathological pigmentation and calcification

4. The concept of necrosis and apoptosis, the type of necrosis, the pathological changes of all kinds of necrosis, the results of necrosis

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: hydronephrosis, liver fatty change, caseous necrosis, abscess of liver, dry and wet gangrene、spleen and renal infarct

2. Section: renal Proximal convoluted cell swelling, liver cell fatty change, liver cell focal necrosis, spleen or renal infarct

Chapter 2 TISSUE REPAIR

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the concepts within the tissue repair content.

2. Grasp the morphological changes, growing process of granulation tissue. Grasp the relationship between granulation tissue and repair. Grasp the function of granulation tissue during wound healing.

3. Grasp the process of bone fracture healing.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the concepts within the tissue repair content. Grasp the morphological changes, forming the process of granulation tissue.

2. Grasp the function of granulation tissue in wound healing and the relationship between granulation tissue and wound healing. Grasp the process of bone fracture healing.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The concept of regeneration and tissue repair, the way and ability of cell regeneration, the processes of all kinds of tissues (blood vessel, connective tissue, epithelial cell, muscle tissue, nervous tissue), and the mechanism of regeneration

2. The factors influencing regeneration

3. The concept, the morphological changes and pathological significance of granulation tissue, the type and basal process of wound healing

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: wound healing lf skin

2. Section: granulation tissue, squamous cell metaplasia of bronchial epithelium

Chapter 3 LOCAL HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the concepts within the content of the local hemodynamic disorders content.

2. Grasp the etiology, pathological changes and results of congestion.

3. Grasp the concept of congestion and the pathological changes of liver and pulmonary congestion.

4. Grasp the pathogenesis, the mechanism, the morphological characteristics and the results of thrombosis.

5. Grasp the concept of thrombosis, thrombus, embolism and infarction.

6. Grasp the morphological changes, types and the results of infarction.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the concepts within the content of the local hemodynamic disorders content.

2. Grasp the etiology, pathological changes and results of congestion.

3. Grasp the pathogenesis, the morphological changes and the results of thrombosis.

4. Grasp the type and the results of embolism.

5. Grasp the morphological changes, the type and results of an infarct.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The concept, the etiology, the pathological changes and the results of hyperemia

2. The pathological changes of liver and pulmonary congestion

3. The concept of thrombosis and thrombus, the pathogenesis, the forming process and the morphological changes of thrombosis, the results and effects of thrombosis.

4. The concept of embolism, the type of the thrombi, the fates of a thromboembolism.

5. The concept, the pathogenesis and pathological changes of an infarct.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: pulmonary congestion, venous thrombus, mural thrombus in the heart, anemic infarction of spleen or kidney, pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction.

2. Section: chronic pulmonary congestion, chronic liver congestion, mixed thrombus, infarction of spleen and kidney.

Chapter 4 INFLAMMATION

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Grasp the definition and basic pathological changes of inflammation.

2. Grasp the pathological features of each kind of acute and chronic inflammation, and the outcomes of acute inflammation.

3. Grasp the process and result of inflammation.

4. Grasp biological purpose of inflammation.

5. Have knowledge of the hemodynamic changes in acute inflammation, and the process and mechanism of leukocyte transmigration.

6. Have knowledge of the origin and functions of inflammatory mediators.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Describe the pathological changes of common fibrinous inflammation and purulent inflammation.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The introduction to inflammation

2. The hemodynamic changes in acute inflammation

3. Pathological changes and outcomes of common acute and chronic inflammation.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: fibrinous pericarditis, pseudomembrans inflammation (diphtheria, bacillary dysentery), abscess (lung, kidney, liver or brain), acute phlegmonous appendicitis, purulent meningitis, chronic cholecystitis

2. Sections: Tracheal diphthery, liver abscess, acute phlegmonous appendicitis, sensitization dermatitis、chronic cholecystitis

Chapter 5 NEOPLASM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Remember the definition, morphological features and atypia of neoplasm.

2. Remember the nomenclature of neoplasm.

3. Remember the growth pattern and metastasis pathway of neoplasm.

4. Remember the differences between benign and malignant tumors, carcinoma and sarcoma.

5. Remember the definitions of precancerous lesion, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, and the main examples of precancerous disease.

6. Understand the classification, grading and staging of neoplasm.

7. Understand the clinical effects of neoplasm on the host.

8. Understand the molecular mechanism of neoplasia.

9. Understand the epidemiology of neoplasia, especially environmental factors and heredity.

10. Understand the host defenses against tumors.

11. Understand the main morphological features of common tumors.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Describe the pathological changes of common epithelial and mesenchymal tumors.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory:

1. The definition, morphological features, differentiation and dysplasia of neoplasm

2. The nomenclature and classification of neoplasm

3. The growth and invasion of neoplasm

4. The grading and staging of neoplasm

5. The clinical effects of neoplasm on the host

6. The comparison between benign and malignant tumors

7. Precancerous lesion, dyplasia and carcinoma in situ

8. The molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of neoplasia

9. Short introduction to common neoplasms.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: squamous cell papilloma in the skin, fibroma, lipoma, angioma, leiomyoma, adenoma in the colon, serous cystic adenoma in the ovary, fibrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma in the penis, adenocarcinoma in the colon, malignant melanoma, mature terotoma in the ovary

2. Sections: squamous cell papilloma in the skin, adenoma, leiomyoma, breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma

Chapter 6 DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Grasp the etiology, pathogenesis, morphology, and clinicopathological correlation (including important complications) of rheumatism, infective endocarditis, valvular heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic (coronary) heart disease.

2. Grasp the pathological changes of rheumatic heart disease. Chronic valvular heart disease effects on hemodynamics, pathology and consequences of every stage of hypertension, basic pathology of atherosclerosis, type, pathology and consequences of coronary heart disease (atherosclerosis)

3. Be familiar with the etiology, pathogenesis, spread pathway, pathology and clinicopathological correlation of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Master the morphological changes of rheumatism, infective endocarditis, hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic (coronary) heart disease.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. Etiology, pathogenesis, basic pathology and developmental process of rheumatism

2. Pathology of rheumatic endocarditis, myocarditis, pericaditis, and arthritis

3. Pathogenesis, morphology, and clinicopathological correlation of chronic valvular heart disease

4. Pathogeny, pathogenesis, pathology and clinicopathological correlation of subacute infective endocarditis

5. Etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension, pathology and the consequences of every phase of benign hypertension, characterists of accelerated hypertension

6. Etiology, pathogenesis, morphology, and consequences of atherosclerosis.

7. Classification and pathology of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestation of angina, Pathogenesis, pathology and consequences of myocardial infarction

8. Concept and common type of cardiomyopathy

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: acute rheumatic endocarditis, acute rheumatic pericarditis, infective endocarditis, hypertension heart disease and atherosclerotic heart disease

2. Slices: acute rheumatic myocarditis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerotic atrophickidney, myocardial infarction

Chapter 7 DISEASES OF RESPAIRATORY SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Grasp the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological lesion, and clinicopathological features of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma, and bronchiectasis).

2. Grasp the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological lesion, and clinicopathological features of silicosis, chronic cor pulmonale, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and bronchial pulmonary carcinoma.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Grasp the morphological changes of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and bronchiectasis), silicosis, pneumonia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, bronchial pulmonary carcinoma.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes, and clinicopathological features of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic cor pulmonale

2. The etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes, clinicopathological features, and complications of lobar pneumonia

3. The etiology and pathological changes of lobular pneumonia, the concept of interstitial pneumonia

4. The etiology, pathogenesis, and pathological changes of bronchiectasis, the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes, and complications of silicosis

5. The etiology, gross type, morphological features, metastasis, and complications of pulmonary carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: emphysema, chronic cor pulmonale, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, silicosis, and bronchial pulmonary carcinoma

2. Sections: emphysema, lobula pneumonia, lobar pneumonia, silicosis, bronchial pulmonary carcinoma

Chapter 8 DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course students will be able to:

1. Understand the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and clinico- pathological correlations of carcinoma of the esophagus, gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the stomach, ulcerative colitis, appendicitis and carcinoma of the large intestine.

2. Understand the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and clinico- pathological correlations of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, primary carcinoma of the liver.

3. Have knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and clinicopathological correlations of acute pancreatitis.

Skills

At the end of the course students will be able to:

1. Master the pathological characteristics of chronic atrophic gastritis in gross view and microscopically.

2. Master the pathological changes of peptic ulcer of the stomach in gross view and microscopically.

3. Master the pathological characteristics of all types of appendicitis in gross view and microscopically.

4. Master the pathological changes of viral hepatitis and portal cirrhosis in gross view and microscopically.

5. Master the pathological changes of carcinoma of the digestive system in gross view and microscopically.

(1) Master the pathological changes of carcinoma of the esophagus.

(2) Master the pathological changes of carcinoma of the stomach.

(3) Master the pathological changes of colonic carcinoma.

(4) Master the pathological changes of primary carcinoma of the liver.

COURSE CONTENTSS

Theory

1. Pathology of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

(1) Carcinoma of the esophagus: etiology, pathological changes, metastasis and clinical-pathological correlation

(2) Peptic ulcer: etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and complications

(3) Gastritis: classification and pathological changes

(4) Carcinoma of the stomach: etiology, pathological changes, metastasis and clinical-pathological correlation

(5) Appendicitis: etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and classification.

(6) Colonic carcinoma: etiology, pathological changes, metastasis and clinical- pathological correlations.

(7) Ulcerative Colitis: pathological changes and clinical-pathological correlation.

(8) Pancreatitis: etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and clinical- pathological correlation.

2. Pathology of the Liver and Biliary Tract.

(1) Viral hepatitis: etiology, pathogenesis, clinicopathological types, pathological changes and clinical-pathological correlation

(2) Hepatocirrhosis: concept and classification, etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes and clinicopathological correlations (portal, postnecrotic and billiary cirrhosis)

(3) Primary carcinoma of the liver: classification, etiology, pathological changes, metastasis and clinicopathological correlations

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: chronic gastric ulcer, viral hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis (portal, postnecrotic and billiary cirrhosis), carcinoma of the esophagus,stomach, colonic carcinoma, primary carcinoma of the liver

2. Section: chronic atrophic gastritis, chronic gastric ulcer, viral hepatitis, portal hepatocirrhosis, carcinoma of the stomach, primary carcinoma of the liver

Chapter 9 LYMPHATIC AND HEMATOPOIETIC

SYSTEM DISEASE

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Grasp the basic concepts regarding: malignant lymphoma, leukemia, malignant histiocytosis.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Grasp the morphological changes of malignant lymphoma.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. Concept, main type, pathological characteristics and clinical-pathological correlations of malignant lymphoma.

2. Basic concepts of leukemia and malignant histiocytosis.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: relative specimen of malignant lymphoma (including Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma)

2. Sections: malignant lymphoma (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), Hodgkin’s disease

Chapter 10 DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course students will be able to:

1. Understand the etiology, pathogenesis, pathological changes, and clinico- pathological relationship of glomerular nephritis and pyelonephritis.

2. Have knowledge of the etiology, pathological changes, metastasis and clinical- pathological relationship of tumor of the kidney and urinary bladder.

Skills

At the end of the course students will be able to:

1. Master the pathological changes of diffuse glomenular nephritis in gross view and microscopically.

2. Master the pathological changes of chronic pyelonephritis in gross view and microscopically.

3. Master the pathological changes of carcinoma of kidney and urinary bladder in gross view and microscopically.

COURSE CONTENTSS

Theory

1. Pathology of the kidney

(1) Renal structure and basis of function

(2) Glomerular nephritis: concept, etiology, pathogenesis, classification

(3) Diffuse glomerular nephritis: concept, pathogenesis, classification, pathological changes, clinical-pathological relationship

(4) Pyelonephritis: Pathogenesis, route of infection, pathological changes, clinical- pathological relationship and result

(5) Carcinoma of kidney: Pathological changes, metastasis and clinical-pathological relationship

2. Pathology of the Urinary Tract

Carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Pathological changes, metastasis and clinical- pathological relationship.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: chronic glomerular nephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, carcinoma of kidney, carcinoma of the urinary bladder

2. Section: glomerular nephritis (common types), chronic pyelonephritis

Chapter 11 IMMUNOPATHOLOGY

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Master the concept of auto-immune disease, immune deficiency and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

2. Describe the mechanism and types of auto-immune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

Understand the morphological changes of Hashimoto thyroiditis

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The immune mechanism of injury of tissue, the types of hyperallergic reactions.

2. The pathogenic mechanism of auto-immune diseases and immune deficiency.

3. AIDS

Experiment

1. Study the TV program about AIDS

2. Section: Hashimoto thyroiditis

Chapter 12 DISEASES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Grasp the etiology, pathogenesis, pathomorphology, clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the breast and cervical carcinoma.

2. Grasp the etiology, pathogenesis, pathomorphology, clinicopathological features of carcinoma of endomertrial adenocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma.

3. Grasp the pathological features of cervical carcinoma and carcinoma of the breast.

Skill

Grasp the morphological changes of carcinoma of the breast, cervical carcinoma, endomertrial adenocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma.

COURSE CONTENTS:

Theory

1. Chronic cervicitis

2. Cervical leiomyoma

3. Pathomorphology and spread, metastasis, clinicopathological of cervical carcinoma, hydatidform mole, choriocaricnoma and carcinoma of the breast

4. Classification and features of ovarian neoplasms

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: cervical carcinoma, hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, chriocarcinoma, carcinoma of the breast, ovarian cysts

2. Sections: hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, cervical carcinoma of the cervix, carcinoma of the breast.

Chapter 13 DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Be familiar with the etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, the clinico-pathological relationship of simple goiter, hyperthyroidism, thyroid carcinoma, hyperadrenocorticism, adrenocortical insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus.

2. Be familiar with the hyperpituitarism, etiology and pathology of thyroid tumor, the classification of thyroid tumors, the classification of adrenocortical tumors, the pathology of islets and various organs and tissues in diabetes mellitus.

Skill

Grasp the morphological changes of simple goiter, hyperthyroidism, thyroid carcinoma, hyperadrenocorticism, adrenocortical insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. Diseases of the pituitary: concept, etiology and types of hyperpituitarism and hypopituitarism, the concept of pituitary drawfism, Sheehan’s syndrome and pituitary gigantism, acromegaly.galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome, Cushing syndrome

2. Diseases of the thyroid: etiology, pathology, the relationship of pathology and the clinical course of endemic and sporadic goiter, etiology, pathology, the clinico- pathological relationship of hyperthyroidism, concept of hypothyroidism, cretinism, Classification and pathology of thyroid adenoma and thyroid adenocarcinoma

3. Diseases of the adrenal gland: concept, pathology, the clinicopathological relationship of hyperadrenocorticism, Cushing’s syndrome, primary hyper- aldosteronism. Etiology and pathology of adrenocortical insufficiency, Addison’s disease

4. Diseases of islets: concept of islet cell tumor, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Diabetes mellitus: etiology, pathology, the clinico-pathological relationship of islets, blood vessels, kidney, retina, nerve et al.

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: diffuse colloid goiter, nodular goiter, exophthalmic goiter, Hasimoto’s thyroiditis, islet cell adenoma, Adrenocortical adenoma, thyroid adenocarcinoma

2. Sections: nodular goiter, Hasimoto’s thyroiditis. exophthalmic goiter, papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyrod.

Chapter 14 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

1. Master the pathogenesis, mechanisms, pathological changes and after effects of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

2. Be familiar with the nervous system neoplasia.

3. Be familiar with the pathogenesis, mechanisms, and pathological changes of the complication of nervous system diseases.

Skill

1. Be familiar with the morphological changes of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and nervous system neoplasia.

COURSE CONTENTS:

Theory

1. Pathogenesis, mechanisms, pathological changes and results of central nervous system vascular disease, cerebral embolism, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral edema and metabolic encephalopathy

2. Pathogenesis, mechanisms, pathological changes of degenerative diseases of the nervous systerm

3. Introduce briefly the tumors of the nervous system: astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, meningioma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, neurilemmoma and neurofibromatosis

4. The complications of the central nervous system diseases

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral edema, epidemic encephalitis type B, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and cerebral glioma

2. Section: epidemic encephalitis type B, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis

Chapter 15 INFECTIOUS DISEASES

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Master the basic pathological changes and describe the progression of tuberculosis, the pathogenesis, development and characteristics of different types of primary and secondary pulmonary tuberculosis. Master the pathological changes, the relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery.

2. Master the etiology, infectious routes, pathogenesis, pathological changes and the relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of amoebiasis.

3. Be familiar with the etiology, infectious routes, pathogenesis, pathological changes and the relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of sexually transmited diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhea, condyloma acuminatum.

Skills

At the end of the course the student will be able to:

1. Master the morphological changes of tuberculosis, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, amoebiasis and syphilis.

2. Be familiar with the morphological changes gonorrhea, condyloma acuminatum.

COURSE CONTENTS

Theory

1. The summary of infectious diseases

2. The etiology, pathogenesis, basic pathological changes and development and progression of tuberculosis

3. The pathogenesis, development, characteristics of different types, relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of primary and secondary pulmonary tuberculosis, The characteristics of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (intestine, peritoneum, meninges, urinogenital system, bone and joint, lymph nodes)

4. The etiology, pathogenesis, infectious routes, pathological changes, relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery

5. The etiology, pathogenesis, infectious routes, pathological changes, relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of amoebiasis

6. The etiology, infectious routes, pathogenesis, pathological changes and the relationship of pathological characteristics to clinical manifestations of sexually transmited diseases, including syphiligonorrhea, condyloma acuminatum

Experiment

1. Gross specimen: primary pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic fibrotic cavitary tuberculosis, caseous pneumonia, military tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, ameobiatic dysentery, extraintestinal ameobiasis.

2. Slices: pulmonary military tuberculosis, renal tuberculosis, typhoid fever, bacillary tuberculosis, ameobiasis.

TEACHING METHODS

For teaching basic fundamentals of the disease process and the applied aspects relevant to the clinical subjects, the following tools are employed:

1. Case studies: The significant and common diseases are discussed in the form of a representative clinical case in which the clinical features, the course of the disease in those particular patient and relevant laboratory investigations are discussed by the clinical faculty in an interactive manner in small groups. This is followed by demonstration of the gross and microscopic features of the disease in that case by the pathologist. This is followed by clinico-pathological correlation.

2. Experiments aggrandizement

Deals with the demonstration of gross, and / or microscopic features of the disease entities.

(1) Learning objectives are given to students before each session.

(2) Observation is done by students on the specimen and they are assisted / supervised by a team of teachers.

(3) A preview of the slides is given on the computer in groups so they understand the structural details of tissues / structures / organs. Some prossected specimens are shown under the microscope and telecast on TV monitors fitted in the laboratory.

(4) Video tapes of some diseases are also shown on TV.

(5) At the completion of the observation handouts are given to the students to recapitulate and remind them of the pathological changes and clinicopathological correlations.

By a combination of the above teaching-Learning tools and modalities the student is able to understand the gross and microscopic structure of the disease, learn applied aspects of the disease process and gain an insight into the structure-function correlation and clinicopathological correlations. This combined with the applied/ clinical knowledge provides an understanding of the pathological basis of health and disease.

REFERENCES

1. Ramzi S. Robbin,Pathologic Basis of Diseases, 6thEdition, A Harcourt Health Sciences Company, 1999.

2. Li Yulin,Pathologic, 6thEdition, People’s Healthy Publishing Company, 2004.

EXAMINATION PATTERN & MARKS DISTRIBUTION

1. Examination can be separated into mid-term examination and end-of-term examination.

2. Theory and experiment are both examined. Theory examination is carried out on paper. In the experimental examination, 10 to 20 gross specimens and slices are given to students and students should write the right diagnosis on the paper.

3. Marks distribution: Theory: 70%, Experiment: 20%, Attendance: 5%, Self-study: 5%.

4. Written examination, question types: Explanation of terms (20 points); Filling the blank (20 points); Simple choice (10 points); Multiple choices (10 points); Questions (40 points).

TEACHING HOURS DISTRIBUTION

Contents

Theory

Experiment

Total

Introduction

2

2

4

Chapter 1 Injury and Adaptation

4

4

2

Chapter 2 Repair

4

Chapter 3 Local Hemodynamic Disorders

6

4

10

Chapter 4 Inflammation

8

4

12

Chapter 5 Tumor

8

4

12

Test for general Experiment

2

Chapter 6 Cardiovascular System

8

4

12

Chapter 7 Respiratory System M

8

4

12

Chapter 8Digestive System

8

4

12

Chapter 9 Urinary System

8

4

12

Chapter10 Lymphatica ematopoietic

4

4

Chapter 11 Reproducte System

Chapter 12Endocrine System

4

4

Chapter 13 Nervousystem

4

4

Chapter 14 Infectious Diseases

8

4

12

Test for general System Experiment

2

Total

72

54

126

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